how long does it take to grow garlic in Nigeria? is the next question that we want to answer to help you make a good decision about garlic planting, growing and harvesting, hence helping your garlic grows well and smoothly.
HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO GROW GARLIC IN NIGERIA?
In Nigeria Garlic bulbs are ready to harvest four to five months (18 weeks) after planting, and they’re usually harvested when the leaves turn yellow or brown and start to fall apart.
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Garlic is one of Nigeria’s most significant herbs, and after onion, it is the most extensively utilized among farmed Alliums.
It is a spice crop that belongs to the same Alliaceae family as onions. It’s a popular health supplement with a crop that consists of an underground bulb and a vegetative shoot.
Garlic is grown extensively in Nigeria’s states of Zamfara, Kano, Katsina, Jigawa, Sokoto, Kaduna, and Bauchi.
Garlic varieties are divided into three categories: great headed varieties, soft neck varieties, and stiff neck kinds.
There are over 70 varieties of garlic. Suitable cultivars should be carefully chosen after taking into account desired features like as maturity time, yield, and color, among others.
REQUIREMENTS OF THE SOIL
Garlic is a hardy perennial crop that may be cultivated in a variety of soil types; however, for commercial production, sandy, silt, and clay loam are suggested.
The soil should be light, fertile, and high in organic matter, as well as well-drained, free of stones and gravel, and able to retain sufficient moisture throughout the growth season.
In a poorly drained soil, garlic turns brown. It grows well on soil with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0.
PROCEDURE FOR PLANTING
Garlic cloves are removed from bulbs and planted; size is critical at this stage since larger cloves produce larger bulbs at harvest. It is not recommended to plant soft cloves, and the base of the cloves should not be broken. Planting depths can range from 3-6cm into the soil, with individual plant spacing of 8-10cm and intra-row spacing of up to 20cm and a clove density of 475kg per hectare.
Read Also: WHAT SHOULD I PLANT BEFORE GARLIC?
Garlic requires 600mm to 1200mm of rainfall, as well as minimum and maximum temperatures of 50°C to 250°C and 250°C to 40°C, respectively.
To manage fungi and insects, healthy cultivars should be immersed in clean water for at least six hours, then the outer skins should be removed and the cultivars dried in a mixture of fungicide and insecticide.
Garlic does not grow well in locations with significant rainfall, therefore mulching can be used to protect the cloves from direct sunshine and excessive water.
For the plant to survive, irrigation facilities must be installed, especially during the dry season.
Small-scale farmers can utilize simple/basic irrigation technologies (such as a bucket or a watering can), but commercial farmers can use sprinkler, drip, and surface irrigation technology.
WEED CONTROL IS IMPORTANT.
Garlic plants compete with weeds for nutrients, moisture, space, and light, resulting in a lower bulb yield.
Getting a higher yield requires proper weed management (either manually or chemically).
For commercial farms, strategies that reduce weed pressure before planting, such as the stale seedbed method, weed-free seed, or soil solarization, must be prioritized.
APPLICATION OF FERTILIZER
Farmyard manure can be added to the soil during site preparation as an organic fertilizer that is particularly effective in garlic production.
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The type and amount of fertilizer that should be administered should be determined by analyzing the soil.
Large-scale farms can also benefit from inorganic fertilizer at a rate of 45;30;30 NPK per acre.
Phosphorus and potassium are supplied at planting, while nitrogen can be applied twice after planting (3 and 6 weeks).
PESTS AND DISEASES
White rot is a fungus that destroys garlic at the base of the leaves as well as the root, and it spreads quickly in cold, wet conditions.
Once this disease has taken hold, the field is no longer suitable for garlic production;
the fungus can live in the soil for up to 20 years and is one of the most devastating diseases of Allium crops worldwide, resulting in significant crop losses.
Downy mildew, Botrytis, and the Garlic Mosaic Virus are among the other illnesses.
Fungicide therapy for White rot may not be efficient in managing the illness under conditions that encourage the fungi’s development, hence cultural techniques may be required:
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Use a long-term rotation with non-allium crops; apply appropriate fungicides if available; prevent transferring soil or plant material between sites; treat seeds with hot water before to planting; use a long-term rotation with non-allium crops.
Garlic is a natural pest repellant and has relatively few pest problems. Common pests that damage garlic include aphids, nematodes, mites, and thrips.
In the meanwhile, proper insecticides can be used to save the situation in the event of an invasion.
Garlic bulbs are ready to harvest four to five months (18 weeks) after planting, and they’re usually harvested when the leaves turn yellow or brown and start to fall apart.
STORAGE OF GARLIC
With the tops removed, garlic bulbs are stored individually. The bulbs should be kept in a cool, dry, dark environment, exposed or loosely covered.
As the bulbs dry, the flavor will improve. Garlic can be kept in jute sacks, preferably in the refrigerator.
16 TIPS FOR GROWING GARLIC IN NIGERIA
agriculture business ideas with tremendous profit potential.
Consider beginning a garlic growing business if you have a little piece of land that is fertile enough for garlic cultivation.
Garlic Cultivation Requirements
Garlic cultivation necessitates fertile soil and favorable weather.
Garlic may be cultivated in a variety of soil types.
For commercial production, however, sandy, silty, and clay loam are preferred.
The soil should be healthy, organically rich, well-drained, and able to retain sufficient moisture during the growth season.
Read Also: HOW TO GROW GARLIC IN WEST AFRICA
Garlic thrives in locations with a Type I climate, which has a rainy season that lasts from May to October and a dry season that lasts from November to April.
Garlic does not grow well in locations where there is a lot of rain.
Garlic cultivation land preparation methods
For garlic production, there are two techniques of land preparation.
These are the following:
Method of tilling:
This process is carried out with the help of manpower or a machine such as a tractor.
Corn, soybeans, and other upland crops could also benefit from it.
At a seven-day interval or shorter, the field is plowed and harrowed twice or more.
A rotavator mounted on a tractor can be utilized as well.
After the harvest, this kind of land preparation is commonly used in lowland rice fields.
Weeds and rice straw are cut close to the ground.
If the soil is overly wet, the area is allowed to dry out until it reaches the acceptable moisture level.
After significant rain or irrigation, canals are frequently built around the paddies to guarantee that there is no standing water.
Garlic seeds for growing
Planting materials should be well matured and well-developed bulbs of medium to large cloves.
These should be disease-free and devoid of mechanical harm.
Depending on the size of the bulbs and the distance between them, a hectare of land will require 400-700 kg of seeds.
Preparation of Garlic Cloves or Seeds
Separating the cloves from one another is the first step in preparing the planting material.
The ideal planting material is the cloves from the bulb’s outer sections.
10-14 cloves are found in large bulbs.
When planting materials are scarce, the inner cloves can be utilized instead, but they must be separated from the outer cloves.
To get rid of seed-borne pests and illnesses, the planting materials are immersed in an insecticide-fungicide solution for at least two hours.
Before sowing, the cloves are air-dried.
Garlic planting techniques varied by area.
Planting is frequently done in the early half of September in rainfed upland areas, particularly in Batangas.
Planting takes place in the southern region and other lowland areas from October to November.
Due to thrips and mite infestations, December planting produces smaller bulbs, especially in the later half of the month, and the bulbs are sometimes impacted by early rain.
Planting distances range from 15 centimeters (cm) × 15 centimeters (cm) to 20 centimeters (cm) x 10 centimeters (cm) to 25 centimeters (cm).
Planting is done by inserting two-thirds of the length of the clove vertically into the soil, or around 2 cm to 3 cm deep, with a dibble or pointed stick.
Mulch can be used either before or after the planting process.
Mulch is spread evenly throughout the area and is 3-5 cm thick.
In the Philippines, rice straw is commonly utilized as a mulching material.
Hulls, sawdust, grasses, and polyethylene or plastic sheet can all be utilized as mulching materials.
Mulch regulates soil moisture as well as weed growth.
Fertilization of garlic
Prior to planting, the soil should be examined to identify the type and amount of fertilizer that will be required.
Soil-testing kits are available at the Department of Agriculture’s several local offices across the country.
This kit measures soil fertility and pH value in a straightforward and easy-to-use manner.
Garlic production is reported to be more effective when organic fertilizer is used.
Organic fertilizer contains not only macro- and micronutrients, but also helpful microbes.
It also helps to improve the soil’s physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
Furthermore, it has no known negative effects on the environment or agriculture.
9.When Should You Plant?
Garlic is planted in October, about the same time as tulips and daffodils. This allows the garlic bulbs’ roots to establish themselves before winter arrives.
10. Where should you plant garlic
Garlic thrives under direct sunlight. Soils that drain well are essential. Poorly drained soils cause the cloves to rot because they will be sitting in the soil all winter.
Planting garlic in raised beds ensures that the soil is properly drained during the winter and that your garlic remains viable.
11. How to plant garlic (Garlic Planting Techniques)
Make a raised bed 8 inches tall, 3 feet broad, and as long as you want. Compost should be added to the bed.
Separate the garlic bulbs you bought on the internet or at a garden center into individual cloves.
Choose kinds that are suited to our climate. Set the cloves pointy side up 2 inches deep and 6 inches apart in rows 1 foot apart in the raised bed.
12. Garlic Maintenance and Care
Garlic is a vegetable that is relatively simple to grow. In the fall, keep the soil moist and cover the bed with a 4- to 6-inch layer of hay or straw in November. Until spring, your garlic should be fine. When the fall weather is warm, the garlic cloves will occasionally grow green shoots. Don’t worry; once the cold weather and shorter days arrive, they will cease growing.
Once the garlic begins to develop in the spring, remove the mulch. This is usually in April or early May.
Add a small handful of organic fertilizer, such as 5-5-5, per row once three garlic leaves have formed. Keep the bed weeded and watered at all times.
Garlic has few challenges if the soil conditions are ideal. They are disliked by pests and animals.
Garlic, among other veggies, is said to keep pests at bay by certain gardeners. Crop rotation is used to keep diseases at bay.
13. How to Harvest Garlic in Nigeria
Early in the summer, when the scapes of hardneck garlic cultivars have formed their curled cues, harvest them.
They have a mellow garlic flavor that works well in recipes. The garlic plant will devote more energy to growing larger bulbs if the scapes are removed.
When the bottom third of the leaves turn yellow, it’s time to harvest garlic bulbs. Remove the bulbs from the ground, knock off any excess soil, and keep them in a cool, airy, shady, dry spot for about 2 weeks, or until the tops have dried.
Trim the roots and snip off the tips with a pruner or sharp knife, 1/2 inch above the bulb. Leave the tops for braiding if you’re growing softneck kinds.
For the winter, keep bulbs in mesh bags in a dark, 40F to 50F room. Under the appropriate conditions, garlic can last up to 6 months.
When gathering this year’s garlic scapes, I’m frequently still eating last year’s garlic.
14. Supplementary Information
‘Russian Red,’ ‘Chesnook Red,’ and ‘German Xtra Hardy’ are some of my favorite hardneck kinds. ‘Inchelium Red’ and ‘New York White’ are two excellent softneck kinds to try.
Elephant garlic has fewer but larger cloves, as well as a milder flavor than other garlic varieties.
15. How to watering Garlic in Nigeria (Irrigation process)
If the soil moisture is insufficient for planting, the field must be irrigated a day or two before planting.
In the event that the soil becomes overly wet as a result of irrigation.
Allow the field to dry until the required moisture level has been reached.
When footprints are deep enough, this state is best exemplified.
Garlic plants develop about 6.5 roots per plant on average.
The roots of clay loam soil can reach a depth of 59 cm.
16. Garlic Rounds from Bulbils
The results of this experiment indicate that planting bulbils for round production in mid-October is the best time, resulting in not only a greater rate of germination and a thicker stand, but also a significantly more favorable ratio of rounds to small bulbs.
Because rounds and small bulbs sometimes develop with their roots entangled, we’ve found that harvesting the entire planting at once is more efficient, even if the small bulbs aren’t quite ripe.
- At the farmers’ market, we sell the largest of these right away. The larger ones are around 15% of the weight of the overall tiny bulb harvest and range in size from a quarter to a fifty cent piece.
- When harvesting rounds, gripping the top at the base and moving it from side to side generally works better than a straight tug at releasing the roots of a resistant round.
- In the past, we’ve planted bulbils by hoeing a shallow furrow, dripping the bulbils in, then covering and mulching the furrow.
- We’ve learned that covering the bulbils with soil isn’t actually necessary, so they’re just mulched once they’ve been planted in the furrow. As a result, they are easy to pull during harvest.
- We mulch the beds with three inches of shredded leaves or five inches of pine needles, both of which help the garlic shoots to penetrate easily in the spring.
- We use entire leaves in the aisles between the beds to help reduce weeds. Learn more by clicking here.
Four to five months (18 weeks) after sowing, garlic bulbs are ready to harvest. The Nigerian states of Zamfara, Kano, Katsina, Jigawa, Sokoto, Kaduna, and Bauchi cultivate a lot of garlic.
Garlic plants compete for nutrients, moisture, space, and light with weeds, resulting in lower bulb yields. Simple/basic irrigation technologies can be used by small-scale farmers (such as a bucket or a watering can).
Commercial farmers can employ irrigation systems like as sprinklers, drip irrigation, and surface irrigation.
Garlic bulbs should be maintained uncovered or loosely wrapped in a cold, dry, dark area.
Garlic grows best in climates classified as Type I, which has a rainy season from May to October and a dry season from November to April.
Mulch can be used to control soil moisture and weed growth through mulching.
Garlic is a reasonably straightforward vegetable to grow. Separate the garlic cloves from the bulbs you bought on the internet or at a garden center.
Maintain moisture in the soil and cover the bed with a 4- to 6-inch layer of hay or straw in the fall.
Some of my favorite hardneck varieties include ‘Russian Red,’ ‘Chesnook Red,’ and ‘German Xtra Hardy.’ Elephant garlic contains fewer but larger cloves than other garlic kinds, as well as a milder flavor. Clay loam soil roots can reach a depth of 59 cm.